To combat the impacts of cloudbursts, the City of Copenhagen developed a Cloudburst Management Plan in 2012, which is an offshoot of the Copenhagen Climate Adaptation Plan. The Plan outlines the priorities and measures recommended for climate adaptation including extreme rainfall. The City carried out an overall assessment of the costs of different measures (traditional vs different options including adaptation measures), the cost of the damages despite the measures and resulting financial impact.
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A series of actions were taken to address erosion in the section of coast between the municipalities of Sirolo and Numana, in the region of Le Marche (Italy), in particular for beach nourishment, principally with gravel and small stones. Cliff stabilisation was another part of the actions, as well as the removal of a portion of artificial reef. The approach for this work was established in the region’s Integrated Coastal Area Managed Plan (released in February 2005). Its broader goals included protecting local settlements and tourism.
Sigma Plan for the Scheldt Estuary. The Sigma Plan is an integrated flood protection plan that combines dykes, seawalls and flood areas to protect approximately 20,000 hectares of land from flooding.
As a result of its topography and impermeable ground surface, the Gomeznarro Park in Madrid was affected by erosion during heavy rainfall events, and the surrounding residential areas suffered from flash flooding. In response to these problems, in 2003 complex works aiming at improving the natural drainage and rain water retention were carried out in the park.
Climate change impact assessment has been an integrated part of the design and planning of the Copenhagen metro since the first metro line was designed in the mid-1990s. Apart from the first metro line, opened in 2002, and the extensions in the following years, which are partly subterranean, Metroselskabet, the Copenhagen metro company, is now constructing the City ring, an underground metro ring in the city centre of Copenhagen, which is scheduled to open in 2018.
Titchwell Marsh lies towards the western end of the North Norfolk coast. It forms a key part of the North Norfolk Coast Special Protection Area (SPA) and SAC (Special Area of Conservation). The freshwater and brackish habitats at Titchwell are protected by seawalls. However, these walls would almost certainly fail within the next few years, due to coastal erosion.
This case study describes the flood risk management plan and the related restoration of a formerly canalized eight kilometer stretch of the Isar river in the city of Munich (the so called “Isar Plan”). Still in the beginning of the 19th century, the Isar river was a typical wild alpine river with wide gravel islands and sandbanks and a constantly changing river bed. In the middle of the 19th century after repeated flooding suffered by the Lehel, Au and Thal districts in Munich, hydraulic regulation began and the riverbed was canalized.
Hesketh Out Marsh is the biggest managed realignment project in the UK, and is one of the country’s most important estuary habitats for birdlife. The original saltmarsh was isolated from the estuary in 1980 by the creation of an outer wall, and was used for growing crops. With the sea level rising, it was necessary to create stronger sea defences. By a process known as “managed realignment”, seawater has been let back in to flood the land, re-creating saltmarsh and providing space for nature.
The old office building at Groot Willemsplein, Rotterdam, dating back to the 1940’s, was renovated to give it a new life with commercial functions on the ground floor and flexible office spaces at the other floors. The most important climate adaptation and mitigation measure implemented is the energy-efficient cooling and heating system. An Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system supplies the building with heat and cold. In summer, heat will be absorbed and stored in a ground water aquifer, this stored heat can be used in winter to heat the building.
Climate change impacts which are expected to be very relevant for the Madrid region include extreme heat in summer, water scarcity and sometimes, heavy rainfall. In 2012, the new building of the energy department of the Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies (IMDEA) was delivered. The new building, located in Móstoles 18 kilometres southwest from central Madrid, incorporates different climate change adaptation solutions.