Plataforma sobre Adaptación al Cambio Climático en España

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Human health

Adapting to heat stress in Antwerp (Belgium) based on detailed thermal mapping

The city of Antwerp, in order to better understand the problem of heat stress, commissioned the research organization VITO to map the current and future temperatures and thermal comfort in the city. The research results indicate that the urban heat island of Antwerp exacerbates the impact of climate change on the urban population as the amount of heatwave days in the city raises twice as fast as in the rural surroundings. To tackle the problem of heat stress in the city, adaptation measures at three different scales (city-wide, local and the individual citizen) are put forth.

Implementation of the Heat-Health Action Plan of North Macedonia

The National Heat-Health Action Plan has been developed within the National Strategy for Adaptation for the health sector to implement adaptation measures and prevent health consequences associated with extreme heat due to climate change.

Its goal is to decrease morbidity connected with heat waves through issuing heat and health warnings, to encourage planning in the relevant sectors, to mainstream health in all policies, and to raise the public and health sector workers’ awareness, as well as to mobilize the resources for managing the heat effects.




Social vulnerability to heatwaves – from assessment to implementation of adaptation measures in Košice and Trnava, Slovakia

High temperatures and heatwaves in the summer pose increasing risks to people living in Slovakian cities. In particular older people and children, those living on top floors in poorly insulated buildings, and those relying on facilities such as nurseries, schools or care homes are prone to heat stress. The Carpathian Development Institute, in collaboration with local authorities in Trnava and Košice, carried out an assessment of vulnerability to high temperatures and heatwaves in residential environment, taking into account the social aspects.

Operation of the Portuguese Contingency Heatwaves Plan

Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. The elderly are particular vulnerable to extreme heat stress. Being part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal has a mild Mediterranean climate. Climate change projections indicate that the number of days with extreme heat in Portugal will increase with urban areas being more sensitive.

Operation of the Austrian Heat Protection Plan

Evidence that increasing temperatures leads to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. Especially the 2003 heat wave in Europe raised the awareness of negative impacts of heat stress on human health in Austria. Increased incidence of heat waves leads to an increase in heat stress, especially in urban areas; the intensification of the heat-island effect is to be expected.

Heat Hotline Parasol – Kassel region

Demographic change and climate change together place great challenges on the society. The life expectancy of the population in Germany rises and so does the share of older people. Besides chronic patients and children, the elderly are especially affected by the effects of the climate change. At the same time more and more people live in single person households (increase from 14.56 million in 2004 to 16.83 million in 2016 in Germany), which can influence their social isolation.

Urban river restoration: a sustainable strategy for storm-water management in Lodz, Poland

The 19th century industrialisation in Lodz heavily affected the city’s rivers altering their ecosystems and hydrology. Many rivers in the densely built-up city were canalized. This resulted in a higher flood risk from runoff during heavy rain periods. Low water retention also implies reduction of soil moisture during dry spells, contributing to higher temperature and reduced air humidity (urban heat island).

Berlin Biotope Area Factor – Implementation of guidelines helping to control temperature and runoff

In Berlin inner city, plans for the development of new buildings fall under a regulation requiring a proportion of the area to be left as green space: the Biotope Area Factor (BAF) or BFF (Biotop Flächenfaktor). All potential green areas, such as courtyards, roofs and walls are included in the BAF. The regulation is a part of a larger set of documents relating to landscape planning and design and species protection. It responds to the need to encourage more green space in densely built-up urban areas.