In 2003, a 10 day heatwave period caused over 2,000 excess deaths (compared to the same dates in the previous five years) in UK. As a response, the heatwave plan for England was first issued in 2014 and has since undergone annual updates (last update in May 2016 has not introduced changes to 2015 version that therefore it is the one still valid). The plan intends to protect the population from heat-related harm to health. It aims to prepare for, alert people to, and prevent, the major avoidable effects on health during periods of severe heat. It allows a structured reaction to five urgency levels (from long-term preparation to immediate relief action), monitored through a seasonal heat-health watch system. The plan is a template for appropriate local heatwave plans. While this plan already offers solutions for the present, it has been devised with future climate in mind. The expected increase in heatwaves and the resulting need for adaptation is illustrated in the accessory document â€œMaking the case: the impact of heat on health â€“ now and in the futureâ€, stating that "[â€¦] unless we take steps now to plan for the longer term changes we will not be prepared. Moreover, these need to be taken on a multi-agency basis [â€¦]". The plan suggests, e.g. the following adaptation focuses: i) urban heat islands, ii) green spaces for cool environments, iii) thermal insulation of homes, and iv) cooling health facilities.