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Spain, in the European context, has an enormous wealth of biodiversity, with a high rate of endemisms. Climate change is another factor that adds pressure to other factors that accelerate the loss of biodiversity, both at national level and global scale.
Abundant changes in composition, structure and operation of various types of ecosystems in Spain are observed. For example, in marine ecosystems have been observed certain physicochemical changes (acidification of waters by increasing the concentration of CO2) that hinder the process of calcification that perform many marine invertebrates. In inland aquatic ecosystems have been significant changes in the thermal structure of the water masses and modifications of the annual cycle of productivity and composition of biological communities. In terrestrial ecosystems have been observed phenological changes in the phenomena of foliation, flowering, fruiting and leaf drop in plants, as well as changes in migration, laying and hatching of eggs in birds, amphibians and insects, etc., associated with a early spring and prolonged, and changes in the distribution of many species, usually to higher latitudes or to higher altitude.